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Anthropology Artifacts Collection

Overview

Scope and Contents

Detailed Description

122M88 -- [artifact name unknown]

122M95 -- [artifact name unknown]

AB-104-11 -- [artifact name unknown]

AB-18-42 -- [artifact name unknown]

All-036 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)

All-087 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)

All-117 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)

All-292 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)

All-296 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)

B-19-2-6309 -- possible olla

CD-113-13 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-113-60- -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a pucuna (Waymire n.d..).

CD-113-60-entry2 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a "pucuna" (Waymire n.d..).

CD-13 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-13-15-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-13-2-6156 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-135-26 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-171-2-6208 -- [artifact name unknown]

CD-173-2 -- [artifact name unknown]

CF-104-1 -- [artifact name unknown]

F-13-7 -- [artifact name unknown]

FA-104-12 -- [artifact name unknown]

FB-111 -- [artifact name unknown]

FB-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-101 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-103-6 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-131-1 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-13-19 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-13-3 -- [artifact name unknown]

FE-172-2 -- Adungu

FE-172-2-entry2 -- Adungu

FF-104-2-B -- Mitei, mite

FF-135-10 -- [artifact name unknown]

FF-14 -- [artifact name unknown]

FF-189-6 -- sambe

FF-189-6-entry2 -- sambe

FF-222-8 -- Shango

FG-102-2 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-104-20 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-122-1 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-10 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-2-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-5 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-13-6-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-152-1 -- [artifact name unknown]

FG-18-8 -- Faifai

[unknown26] -- Nomoli

GD-103-10 -- [artifact name unknown]

GE-222 -- [artifact name unknown]

GH-223-XXX -- Likely a Honh bell

GH-223-XXX-entry2 -- Dril bu

N-127 -- None specifically

N-232 -- [artifact name unknown]

N-232-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]

N-250 -- Punca (in Yagua)

N-250-1 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a Apucuna@ (Waymire n.d..).

[unknown01] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown02] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown04] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown05] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan masks

[unknown09] -- wa

[unknown10] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown12] -- wik?ro or s?

[unknown16] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan mask

[unknown17] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown18] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown25] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown21] -- [artifact name unknown]

[unknown24] -- [artifact name unknown]

File cabinet 1

File cabinet 2

File cabinet 3

Box 1

Box 2

Box 3

Box 4

Box 5

Box 6

Box 7

Box 8

Box 9

Box 10

Box 11

Box 12

Box 13

Box 14

Box 15

Box 16

Box 17

Box 18

Box 19

Box 20

Box 21

Box 22

Box 23

Box 24

Box 25

Box 26

Box 27

Box 28

Box 29

Box 30

Box 31

Box 32

Box 33

Box 34

Box 35

Box 36

Box 37

Box 38

Box 39



Contact us about this collection

Anthropology Artifacts Collection | Wheaton College Archives & Special Collections

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Collection Overview

Title: Anthropology Artifacts CollectionAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.

ID: WC-Anth/Main

Extent: 0.0

Scope and Contents of the Materials

The anthropology artifacts collection contains a wide range of items that document the material culture from around the world and was received as gifts. The artifact descriptions were created from existing information created near the time of acquisition as well as research conducted by students.

Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Item:

[Item 1: 122M88 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 2: 122M95 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 9: AB-104-11 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 16: AB-18-42 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 29: All-036 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 30: All-087 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 31: All-117 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 32: All-292 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 33: All-296 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 43: B-19-2-6309 -- possible olla],
[Item 47: CD-113-13 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 49: CD-113-60- -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a pucuna (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 50: CD-113-60-entry2 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a "pucuna" (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 56: CD-13 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 60: CD-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 61: CD-13-15-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 64: CD-13-2-6156 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 65: CD-135-26 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 74: CD-171-2-6208 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 77: CD-173-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 85: CF-104-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 88: F-13-7 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 90: FA-104-12 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 93: FB-111 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 96: FB-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 99: FE-101 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 112: FE-103-6 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 129: FE-131-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 131: FE-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 136: FE-13-19 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 137: FE-13-3 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 146: FE-172-2 -- Adungu],
[Item 147: FE-172-2-entry2 -- Adungu],
[Item 158: FF-104-2-B -- Mitei, mite],
[Item 162: FF-135-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 163: FF-14 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 186: FF-189-6 -- sambe],
[Item 187: FF-189-6-entry2 -- sambe],
[Item 190: FF-222-8 -- Shango],
[Item 200: FG-102-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 202: FG-104-20 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 208: FG-122-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 209: FG-13-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 215: FG-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 216: FG-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 217: FG-13-2-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 220: FG-13-5 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 222: FG-13-6-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 227: FG-152-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 235: FG-18-8 -- Faifai],
[Item 326: [unknown26] -- Nomoli],
[Item 252: GD-103-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 275: GE-222 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 289: GH-223-XXX -- Likely a Honh bell],
[Item 290: GH-223-XXX-entry2 -- Dril bu],
[Item 291: N-127 -- None specifically],
[Item 295: N-232 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 296: N-232-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 297: N-250 -- Punca (in Yagua)],
[Item 298: N-250-1 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a Apucuna@ (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 301: [unknown01] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 302: [unknown02] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 304: [unknown04] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 305: [unknown05] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan masks],
[Item 309: [unknown09] -- wa],
[Item 310: [unknown10] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 312: [unknown12] -- wik?ro or s?],
[Item 316: [unknown16] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan mask],
[Item 317: [unknown17] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 318: [unknown18] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 325: [unknown25] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 321: [unknown21] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 324: [unknown24] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[File cabinet 1],
[File cabinet 2],
[File cabinet 3],
[Box 1],
[Box 2],
[Box 3],
[Box 4],
[Box 5],
[Box 6],
[Box 7],
[Box 8],
[Box 9],
[Box 10],
[Box 11],
[Box 12],
[Box 13],
[Box 14],
[Box 15],
[Box 16],
[Box 17],
[Box 18],
[Box 19],
[Box 20],
[Box 21],
[Box 22],
[Box 23],
[Box 24],
[Box 25],
[Box 26],
[Box 27],
[Box 28],
[Box 29],
[Box 30],
[Box 31],
[Box 32],
[Box 33],
[Box 34],
[Box 35],
[Box 36],
[Box 37],
[Box 38],
[Box 39],
[All]

File cabinet 3Add to your cart.
File cabinet drawer 1Add to your cart.
Item 251: GD-101-1- -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Carved wooden screen, with a dark finish. Heart-shaped internal design, one side detailed, one side flat.

References Cited: Gervis, Pearce. 1954. This is Kashmir. London: Cassel & Company Ltd.

Lawrence, Walter. 1909. Provincial Series: Kashmir and Jammu. Imperial Gazetteer of India. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing.

Lawrence, Walter R. 1895. The Valley of Kashmir. London: Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press Warehouse.

Culture: Kashmir or Kashmiri
Culture Area: Asia
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 29.5 cm x 16.7 cm
Donor: Unknown
General Area of the World: India
Material: Wood, most likely walnut
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 322 (woodworking), 531 (decorative art)
Outline of World Cultures Code: AV1 or AV4
Use and Background: Kashmiri peoples have been wood carvers for centuries (Gervis 1954). Kashmiri art often involves floral and/or geometric designs (Gervis 1954). Walnut wood is widespread throughout Kashmir (Lawrence 1895), and is particularly good for being carved (Gervis 1954). This object has been carved, all in one piece. Objects similar to this are used in interior decorating (Lawrence 1909).
Item 283: GF-13-1 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Ink Stick
Culture: Chinese
Culture Area: China
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: This ink stick measures 6cm. in length
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Asia
Material: Metal with colorful glaze
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
References Cited: Thomsen, Hans. Electronic Interview 9/29/06 University of Chicago
Use and Background: This ink stick along with the accompanying brush (now missing) would have been used as s Chinese writing tool. The Chinese often decorated common object and these would function as simulacrum, or an object representing a different object. Ink sticks like this one were often designed to represent the handles of ornate swords. This particular ink stick appears to represent the type of sword used in Chinese dramatic theater and opera. Thus, as an individual used this ink stick while writing, he or she might imagine a more noble cause. The design on this ink stick is that of flowers, a common design for objects likes these. The colors of bright blue and purples as well as the circular designs in the background were also common themes of Chinese ink sticks (Thomsen 2006)
Item 119: FE-111-40 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Knife or dagger with curve and circle decorations incised on curved blade and handle made of sheep or goat horn tip. Sheath of leather.

References Cited: Burrows, Guy

1899 On the Natives of the Upper Welle District of the Belgian Congo. Journal of the Royal Anthropologoical Instituute of Great Britain and Ireland 28(1):35-48.

Hurst, Norman

1997 Ngola: The Weapon as Authority, Identity, and Ritual Object in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, MA: Hurst Gallery.

Reynolds, Harold

1904 Notes on the Azande Tribe of the Congo. Journal of the Royal African Society 3(11):238-246.

WCMCF (Wheaton College Museum Card File)

N.d. Available in the Wheaton College Billy Graham Center Special Collections Room.

Culture: Azande
Culture Area: Congo
Date Acquired: Before 1955
Dimensions: Knife: 46.4 cm long, blade: 31.5 cm long x 3 cm at widest; Sheath: 35.5 cm long x 4.2 cm at widest x 4 cm deep
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Knife: Iron (blade) and horn (handle); Sheath: leather
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 411 (Weapons), 321 (Bone, horn, and shell technology), 282 (Leather industry)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO7
Use and Background: This type of dagger is one of the four principle weapons of the Azande, along with spears, swords, and throwing knives (Hurst 1997:18). Among the Azande, all weapons are property of the chief,
File cabinet drawer 2Add to your cart.
Item 204: FG-106-4 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Instrument made of two dark bamboo pipes tied together with a green and pink printed cloth.

References Cited: Kusimba, Chapurkha. 2009. Curator of Anthropology, African Archaeology and Ethnology, Field Museum, Chicago. Personal communication. September 14, 2009.

Philipp, Chris. 2009. Regenstein Collections Manager, Department of Anthropology, Field Museum, Chicago. Personal communication. September 14, 2009.

Culture: unknown
Culture Area: Africa (Kusimba), or Amazon (Philipp)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Pipe 1--62.5 cm long, 4.6 cm diameter; Pipe 2
Donor: unknown
General Area of the World: unknown
Material: bamboo, cloth
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534 (musical instruments)
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: A pipe trumpet that produces only one note in each pipe because there are no finger holes along either pipe.
Item 139: FE-135-1 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Dark brown wooden comb decorated with carved human head wearing a fez. The comb has nine prongs and a series of triangular patterns hatched into the rectangular section.
Culture: Chokwe or Luvale/Lwena
Culture Area: Zambia (WCMCF)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 18.2 cm length x 6.2 cm width
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Central and Southern Africa
Material: Dark wood
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 302 (Personal Grooming), 303 (Manufacture of Personal Grooming Accessories)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FP04 (Chokwe)
References Cited: Jord
Use and Background: This comb comes either from the Chokwe or Luvale peoples, who are two closely related groups located in Angola, Zambia, and Southwestern Congo (Moyer 1996). They share a common ancestry that dates back to the Lunda migrations in the sixteenth century. The Lunda originated a concept of a sacred kingship centered around chiefs who serve as representatives of God on earth, a concept which continues today among the Chokwe and Luvale peoples. Many of the objects they craft that relate to the activities of daily life as well as beauty and dress, such as this comb, serve to reinforce this cosmology and the importance of social status within it (Jord
Item 100: FE-101-101 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Comb with striped handle and prongs twined together by reed and arranged in a fan shape. The handle is also bordered on each side by a row of woven plant fibers.

References Cited: Burrows, Guy

1899 On the Natives of the Upper Welle District of the Belgian Congo. London:

Trubner & Co.

Gillies, Eva

1999 Cultural Summary: Azande. New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations

Area Files.

Larken, P.M.

1927 An Account of the Zande. Khartoum: [electronic HRAF citations

incomplete].

Neuberger Museum of Art

2001 A Personal Journey: Central African Art from the Lawrence Gussman

Collection. New York: Purchase College.

Culture: Azande
Culture Area: Congo and Southwestern Sudan
Date Acquired: before 1957
Dimensions: 19.5 cm length x 8.5 cm width (prong portion)
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Central Africa
Material: Wooden wicker and reed
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 302 (Personal Grooming), 303 (Manufacture of Personal Grooming Accessories)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO07 (Azande)
Use and Background: The Azande are historically known for being invaders from the north who established sovereignty over a large region and were frequently at war with the Mangbetu, another group with which they shared many similar characteristics, including their aggressive character, architecture, and style of art (Neuberger 2001:156). While known for their carving of musical instruments, their non-utilitarian carving is poorly developed (Gillies 1999). This comb is not wood carved but rather made from reed twined around double-sided wicker, an example of Azande development of other methods of crafting. Burrows (1899) described the Azande as fond of personal adornment, and Larken (1926) confirmed this when describing in detail Azande methods of hairdressing, which are an important part of the toilette. Both men and women use combs to prepare the hair for dressing, and, while men usually do nothing more than a frizz, women have elaborate styles of hair arrangement, each with its own name. This comb was likely used as adornment to accent a woman
Item 152: FE-19-5 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
A clay pipe-bowl with decoration etched into the outside of the bowl. A copper wire is wrapped around the stem. The inside of the bowl contains remnants of tar and is stuffed with native cotton.

References Cited: Anderson, R. G.

1911 Some Tribal Customs in their Relation to Medicine and Morals of the Nyam-nyam and Gour People Inhabiting the Eastern Bahr-El-Ghazal. Fourth Report of Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories at the Gordon Memorial College Khartoum B:239-277. London: Bailli

Culture: Mbaka
Culture Area: Central Africa (Northwestern Angola)
Date Acquired: Before 1957
Dimensions: Bowl: diameter: 3.7 cm, height: 5.7 cm; Stem: diameter: 1.5 cm, length 5 cm.
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Clay, cloth, copper
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 276 (Recreational and Non-Therapeutic Drugs)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FP6 (Kimbundo)
Use and Background: The original Wheaton College Museum Card File which documents this pipe indicates that the pipe is from the Umbaca tribe in the Congo. After further research, the name
File cabinet drawer 3Add to your cart.
Item 89: F-6 -- Coptic crossAdd to your cart.
Iron Coptic cross with rhombus-shaped points, on a handle, embellished with a pinhole design around edges, some rusting.

References Cited: Lambert, Joseph B.

1997 Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology Through Chemistry. Basic Books.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

2000 Processional Cross [Ethiopia, Lalibela]. Electronic document, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/sfe/ho_1998.37.htm, accessed December 11, 2008.

Ross, Emma George

2002 African Christianity in Ethiopia. Electronic document, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acet/hd_acet.htm, accessed December 11, 2008.

Culture: Ethiopia
Culture Area: Eastern Horn (Ethiopia)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 20.3 cm long x 8 cm wide x 0.5 cm tall
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 788 (ritual)
Outline of World Cultures Code: MP1 (Ethiopia)
Use and Background: Ethiopian Christianity began in the fourth century A.D. with the conversion of King Ezana, who believed Christianity would unite his kingdom and also solidify trade relationships with Rome (Ross). Despite destructive Islamic jihads in the sixteenth century, Christianity has remained a primary religion in Ethiopia. Crosses such as this were given to monasteries so that the donors would be remembered in prayers (Metropolitan). It was likely made with the lost-wax technique, described by Joseph B. Lambert:
File cabinet drawer 4Add to your cart.
Item 189: FF-222-7 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Rusted iron spike with a fringe of hooks curling up from one end.

References Cited: Dewey, William J. and Allen F. Roberts

1993 Iron, Master of Them All: Objects of Religious Significance. Electronic document, http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/ceras/iron/index.html#anchor872594, accessed December 11, 2008.

Ross, Emma George

2002 The Age of Iron in West Africa. Electronic document, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/iron/hd_iron.htm, accessed December 11, 2008.

Culture: Yoruba
Culture Area: Guinea Coast (Nigeria)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 29.6 cm long x 9.4 cm wide (at fringe of hooks) x .8 cm circumference (around central spike)
Donor: Tanis, Sudan Interior Mission
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 788 (ritual), 326 (smiths and their crafts)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FF26 (Yoruba)
Use and Background: Iron objects of the Yoruba people of West Africa are made to honor Ogun, the god of iron, and Shango, the god of thunder. Iron objects are created to
Item 224: FG-13-7 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Black glass bracelet made from old melted glass B molded in a clay shell

References Cited: Oral History Interview of Burt Long. Collection 351. Billy Graham Center Archives. Wheaton College Museum Card File, n.d.., File Available in Department of Sociology and Anthropology.

Chap M. Kusimba, Curator of African Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural History (interview October 2006)

Additional Information: Image 4. Wheaton College Museum Image File, n.d. File Available in Department of Sociology and Anthropology.
Culture: Same as FG 13 3
Culture Area: Sudan
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 8 cm diameter
Donor: Rev. Carl Tanis with Sudan Interior Mission (SIM)
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Glass
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 281, 237, 301, 306, 439, 531, 796
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: Same as FG 13 3
Item 223: FG-136-14 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
This copper bracelet or arm band is simplistic in style. It is has completely rounded edges and is smooth to the touch. Its color is a dark brown.

References Cited: Card File.

N.d. Special Collections Library Wheaton College. Wheaton.

Jones, G. I.

1958 Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 28, No. 1. Edinburough University Press.

Culture: Yoruba
Culture Area: Yoruba, Central Africa
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 12.5cm diameter x 1.2 cm thick
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: copper
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: Mineral and Resources (135), Mining and Quarry (316), Ornament (301), Nonferrous metal industries (328)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FF (Nigeria), FF06 (Yoruba)
Use and Background: Though possibly used as a bracelet, this item was more likely used as a dress ornament. These were typically worn in groups of five (Card File). As this culture primarily functioned on a bartering system, these copper rings were used as currency. The rings were highly prized and were worth far more than brass. For approximately nine copper rings a person could obtain a slave (Jones).
Item 124: FE-13-10 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Iron necklace with crude hooked clasp.
Culture: Possibly Wambuba
Culture Area: The Upemba Depression in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Date Acquired: 1955
Dimensions: 1 cm thick, 14 cm diameter
Donor: Mr. Paul Stough
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 281, 237, 301, 306, 439, 531, 796
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
References Cited: Prince William of Sweden 1926 Among Pygmies and Gorillas. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co. Oxford University Press 1974 Oxford African Encyclopedia. Fletcher and Son, Ltd. Wheaton College Museum Card File, n.d.., File Available in Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Chap M. Kusimba, Curator of African Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural History (interview October 2006)
Use and Background: Necklaces like this are quite widespread in Sub Saharan Africa. Likely to be made for use by women. Some African people believe that these necklaces can serve as protective charms that ward evil intensions. This is especially true when children wear them in a smaller size. "The people here are called Wambuba. Only a few years ago they had a bad reputation for cannibalism... The women wear heavy necklets of iron and resemble convicts in this garb," (Among Pygmies and Gorillas, 222).
Item 125: FE-13-10-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
This necklace is a solid, not easily pliable, iron circle. On the external face it is decorated with etched cross-hatching. Its oxidized color is a ruddy-brown. The clasp consists of two rounded edges that intertwine when closed.

References Cited: Oliver, Roland Anthony, J.D. Fage, G.N. Sanderson

1870 The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press.

Reswick, Katherine White

1972 African Arts, Vol. 5, No. 3 UCLA African Studies Center.

Culture: Lendu
Culture Area: Lendu Tribe, Congo
Date Acquired: 1955
Dimensions: 14 cm diameter x 1 cm thick
Donor: Mr. Paul Stough
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: Iron and Steel Industry (327), Jewelry manufacturing (306), Mining and Quarry (316), Ornament (301)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO (Zaire), FO21 (Kongo)
Use and Background: Much of the iron and iron work came from the rich iron-ore district between the head waters of the Alima and Kuku rivers (tributaries of congo) and the Ogove (Oliver). The use of iron in jewelry was used decoratively and to demonstrate the masculinity of the men (Reswick). This ironwork was transported by canoe south to Mbe (the capital) and to other markets in the Teke kingdom, and north and east up the Ikelemba and Tshuapa rivers to the lands of Mongo (Oliver).
Item 240: FG-222-5 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Thick cotton string, strung with indigo beads and brass bells. Brass bells all have the same markings of horizontal rings at the base and vertical lines at the tip. They were most likely cast with the use of four or five different molds based on size and design variations on the bells.

References Cited: January, Judith Anne. 1963. Notes from Tanis Collection. Available in Wheaton College Department of Sociology and Anthropology.

Wheaton College Museum Card File (W.C.M.C.F.). (n.d.). File available in Wheaton College Department of Sociology and Anthropology.

Culture: Sub-Saharan Kagoro tribe: Nigeria (W.C.M.C.F.)
Culture Area: West Africa
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Full length of ornament when pulled straight: 82 cm , diameter when attached: 52,5 cm. Size of bells: length range (with ring): 2.5 - 3 cm, length range (without ring) : 2 - 2.5 cm , diameter (large side) : 1,5 cm. , diameter (narrow side) : 1 cm.
Donor: Carl. J. Tanis
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Sting: cotton ; Beads: glass ; Bells: brass
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 782
Outline of Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: This beaded string was used and worn at the waist by witchdoctors and their helpers for the propitiation of evil spirits (W.C.M.C.F). Blue dye was traditionally used for cotton (as seen on the string holding the belt) but this indigo blue later became widely popular for the dying of segi" or "popo" beads commonly found in West Africa (January 1963:8). The bells are undoubtedly cast, as bronze and brass casting was a culturally important activity in the culture area (January 1963:8). They are unique in that each one has a clapper inside, contrary to bells used as instruments which never had clappers but were hit with a stick (January 1963:7). "
Item 241: FG-222-5-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
An ornate necklace or belt that must be tied around either the neck or waist. It is made primarily of blue chord and blue glass beads that are occasionally interrupted by brass teardrop shaped bells.

References Cited: Card File.

N.d. Special Collections Library Wheaton College. Wheaton.

Culture: Yoruba
Culture Area: Central Africa, Yoruba Peoples
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: : blue beads- .75 cm tall, bells 1.75 cm tall, chord- 81 cm long
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Blue beads- Glass Segi or Papo beads, Bells- Brass, Chord- Cotton (dyed in indigo and violet)
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: Collecting (222), Jewelry (306), Ornament (301)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FF (Nigeria), FF62 (Yoruba)
Use and Background: For the Yoruba people, there was great skill in bronze and brass castings (Card File). They believed that the use of these ceremonial bells made from brass could be used for propitiating evil spirits. Such ceremonial items were worn by a doctor, shaman, or helper. For the Yoruba people the blue glass beads, segi or papo beads, were produced in large quantities. These beads closely resembled Egyptian beads. A large crucible containing 1850 of such beads was found intact near Ife. In the fifteenth century
Item 115: FE-111-10 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Knife with a diamond pattern etched onto blade and human face carved into wooden handle. Sheath of crocodile skin.

References Cited: AMNH (American Museum of Natural History)

2008a African Ethnographic Collection: Knife. Electronic Document.

http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/databases/common/image_dup.cfm?database=africa&catno=90.2/%204615%20B&site=P. Accessed November 2008.

2008b African Ethnographic Collection: Knife. Electronic Document.

http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/databases/common/image_dup.cfm?database=africa&catno=90.2/%204617&site=P. Accessed November 2008.

Hurst, Norman

1997 Ngola: The Weapon as Authority, Identity, and Ritual Object in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, MA: Hurst Gallery.

University of Iowa

1998 Mangbetu Information. Electronic Document. http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Mangbetu.html. Accessed December 3, 2008

Culture: Mangbetu
Culture Area: Congo
Date Acquired: Before 1955
Dimensions: Knife: 44.7 cm long, blade 3.3 cm at widest, handle 2.5 cm deep; Sheath: 32 cm long x 4.5 cm at widest x 1.5 cm deep
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Knife: wood (handle), iron (blade); Sheath: crocodile skin
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 411 (Weapons), 322 (Woodworking), 281 (Work in skins)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO29
Use and Background: The Mangbetu believe carved wooden figures to be
File cabinet drawer 5Add to your cart.
Item 36: B-151-11 -- SarapeAdd to your cart.
Small woven blanket with white fringe on the shorter ends. Blue background with multicolored stripes.

References Cited: Castro, Rafaela G.

2001 Chicano Folklore: A guide to Folktales, Traditions, Rituals, and Religious Practices of Mexican Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gordon, Ramond G. Jr., ed.

2005 Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Languages of Mexico. Electronic document, http://www.ethnologue.com, accessed on December 10, 2008.

International Bureau of the American Republics, ed.

1904 Mexico: Geographical Sketch, Natural Resources, Laws, Economic Conditions, Actual Development, Prospects of Future Growth. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Macgregor, John

1847 The Progress of America, from the Discovery by Columbus to the Year 1846, vol. 2: Geographical and Statistical. London: Whittaker and Co.

Page, Susan

2008 Serapes from Cort

Culture: Mexican
Culture Area: Northern Mexico
Date Acquired: 1973 or 1974
Dimensions: 38 cm wide by 40.5 cm long, with 12 cm long tassels on each of the shorter ends
Donor: Dr. Dean Arnold
General Area of the World: North America
Material: Fabric, cloth (wool)
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 286 (Woven Fabrics), 291 (Normal Garb), 531 (Decorative Art)
Outline of World Cultures Code: NU1 (Mexico)
Use and Background: This artifact is a miniature version of a sarape, which in its original form is large enough to be worn as an outer garment. As a garment, the sarape is typically worn over the shoulder of an aristocrat (Page 2008), or as a cloak for a peasant (Macgregor 1847:249). However, the sarape can also be used as a blanket or even a decoration in the home. Prior to the arrival of Spanish explorers and conquistadores in Central America, the Aztec peoples
Item 246: FG-223-4 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Double Bells

References Cited: Cole, Herbert M., with Michael D. Harris, Robin Poynor, and Monica Blackmun Visona. 2001. A History of Art in Africa. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.

Keim, Curtis A., and Enid Schildkrout. 2003[1990]. African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire. AMNH and University of Washington Press. Electronic document of the American Museum of Natural History, http://diglib1.amnh.org/articles/anthro/excerpt2.html, accessed October 1, 2006.

Culture: Mangbetu
Culture Area: Central Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Each bell (base to curve) 27 cm, diameter 6.5 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Metal (Iron)
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534, 788
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: The Mangbetu are well known in the Congo for their blacksmithing, smelting, and carving skills. The ritual of smelting (which traditionally excludes women) is considered distinct from blacksmithing among the Mangbetu, mainly based on the purpose of the work itself (Keim et al 2003[1990]). Smiths often became rich men through making spear blades, axes, hammers, ironworking (for bridewealth), and metal ornaments for those of high status, whereas smelters make metal objects used in ritual ceremonies (Keim et al 1990). Double bells like this example are made for kings as court instruments and as key symbols of a chief's authority involving human sacrifice and cannibalism (Keim et al 2003[1990]). These double bells are made of iron, though other versions are made of other metals, especially copper-a material that symbolizes high prestige since it must be imported from the South (Cole et al 2001:431). Mangbetu bellows, Hellman says, are made of wood covered with banana leaves and used in sets of four" (Keim et al 2003[1990]). In contrast, Azande bellows are covered with animal hide (Keim et al 2003[1990]). Mangbetu smelters traditionally had to abstain from sexual intercourse before smelting, and a naando practitioner (who chewed the naando root and sand sacred songs during the smelting) always assisted the smelter in order to ensure success in creating the ritual objects (Keim et al 2003[1990])."
Item 247: FG-223-4-entry2 -- Ogene eti nabo (Ogene with two ears)Add to your cart.
Two conical, metal bells of slightly unequal size joined by a metal handle. Both bells are without clappers, tuned to D and E respectively, and each has pinched sides and barely any rust. Also described as an ideophone or a struck metallophone. The wooden stick used to strike the bells is not pictured.

References Cited: Boston, J.S.

1964 Ceremonial Iron Gongs Among the Ibo and the Igala. Man 64:44-47.

Nzewi, O

Culture: Igbo
Culture Area: Southern Nigeria
Date Acquired: Before 1989
Dimensions: 28 cm long from the tip of the handle to the end of the longest bell, 24 cm wide at widest point, each gong is about 12.7 cm tall
Donor: Tanis
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534 (Musical Instruments)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FF26 (Igbo)
Use and Background: This item is a double gong that can be found in various forms, shapes, and sizes across Central Africa; however, this particular gong was acquired in Nigeria, most likely from the Igbo people. Although the catalogue number seems to indicate that these bells are from Sudan, the Museum Catalogue card also cites an article (Okasa 1962:4-14) that refers to double gongs found in Liberia among the Igbo. In addition, similar bells can be found in Cameroon (OCCM), whose proximity to Liberia adds to the argument that these bells belong to the Igbo. Double gongs of the Igbo
Item 116: FE-111-15 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Knife or dagger with curve and circle decorations incised on curved blade and handle made of sheep or goat horn tip. Sheath of reptile skin.

References Cited: Burrows, Guy

1899 On the Natives of the Upper Welle District of the Belgian Congo. Journal of the Royal Anthropologoical Instituute of Great Britain and Ireland 28(1):35-48.

Hurst, Norman

1997 Ngola: The Weapon as Authority, Identity, and Ritual Object in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, MA: Hurst Gallery.

Reynolds, Harold

1904 Notes on the Azande Tribe of the Congo. Journal of the Royal African Society 3(11):238-246.

WCMCF (Wheaton College Museum Card File)

N.d. Available in the Wheaton College Billy Graham Center Special Collections Room.

Culture: Azande
Culture Area: Congo
Date Acquired: Before 1955
Dimensions: Knife: 26.5 cm long, blade: 14.5 cm long x 2.5 cm at widest; Sheath: 18 cm long x 4 cm at widest x 0.9 cm deep
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Knife: Iron (blade) and horn (handle); Sheath: snake or lizard skin
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 411 (Weapons), 321 (Bone, horn, and shell technology), 281 (Work in skins)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO7
Use and Background: This type of short dagger is one of the four principle weapons of the Azande, along with spears, swords, and throwing knives (Hurst 1997:18). Among the Azande, all weapons are property of the chief,
Item 78: CD-173-2-6275 -- Mbaraka (Gattino 2008)Add to your cart.
Two gourd rattles. Each gourd has a bamboo going through it (the handle). There is thread tying each gourd to a bamboo stick.
Culture: Guaran
Culture Area: Brazil
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Rattle with larger gourd: Length: 38.5 cm, diameter of bamboo: 0.9 cm, widest diameter of gourd: 9 cmRattle with smaller gourd: Length: 38.3 cm, diameter of bamboo: 0.9 cm, widest diameter of gourd: 7.4 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: South America
Material: Gourds, bamboo, and thread
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Item 79: CD-173-2-6275-entry2 -- Mbaraka (Gattino 2008)Add to your cart.
Two gourd rattles. Each gourd has a bamboo going through it (the handle). There is thread tying each gourd to a bamboo stick.

References Cited: Ganson, Barbara Anne

2006 The Guaran

Culture Area: Tropical Forest: Brazil
Cultures: Guaran
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Rattle with larger gourd: Length: 38.5 cm, diameter of bamboo: 0.9 cm, widest diameter of gourd: 9 cm Rattle with smaller gourd: Length: 38.3 cm, diameter of bamboo: 0.9 cm, widest diameter of gourd: 7.4 cm
Donor: Tanis
General Area of the World: South America
Material: Gourds, bamboo, and thread
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534 (Musical Instruments), 773 (Mythology), 780 (Religious Practices)
Outline of World Cultures Code: SM4 (Guaran
Use and Background: The Guaran
File cabinet drawer 6Add to your cart.
Item 105: FE-101-16 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
This is a blade with a long sword shape that curves slightly towards the end. At the beginning of the blade there are lines of small etchings, scratch marks, that make up shapes. The handle has a wood, cone-shaped base, and the rest is wrapped in flat and twisted iron strips.

References Cited: Childs, S. Terry. 1993. Indigenous African Metallurgy: Nature and Culture. Annual Review of Anthropology 22:317-337.

Dewey, William J. and Roberts, Allen F. 1998. Iron, Master of them All. The University Libraries, the University of Iowa. Electronic document, http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/ceras/iron/, accessed October 9, 2006.

Lenk-Chevitch, P. 1941(Jul.-Aug.). Note Concerning the Distribution of the Sickle-Sword. Man 41:81-84.

Mack, John (ed). 2000. Africa, Arts and Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.

Newman, Thelma R. 1974. Contemporary African Arts and Crafts. New York: Crown Publishing Inc.

Wheaton College Museum of Anthropology. Card Number FE 101-16. Card Catalogue found in Wheaton College's Anthropology Department.

Wolfe, Allen W. 1959. Man's Relation to Man in Africa. American Anthropologist, New Series, 61(4) (Aug.). 606-614

Culture: Ngombe
Culture Area: Democratic Republic of Congo
Date Acquired: 1955
Dimensions: 65cm long Blade: 52cm x 7.5cm at widest point Handle: 13cm x 10cm base diameter
Donor: Mr. Paul Stough
General Area of the World: Central, sub-Saharan Africa
Material: Iron, wood
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 411 - Weapons, or 412 - General Tools
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: This sword likely comes under the category of sickle-swords due to its curved blade. Most sickle-swords are characterized by a strongly curved blade" with the cutting edge on the inside, or concave, edge (Lenk-Chevitch 1941:81). Many sickle-swords began as agricultural tools and slowly evolved into weapons. However, they are not every effective weapons because of their sharply curved blade and sharpened edge only being on the inside of the blade. If the sickle-sword became a weapon, it often had "straight or considerably less curved blades with the cutting edge on the convex (bulging) side" (Lenk-Chevitch 1941-81). Since this sword does not have a sharply curved blade, and is sharp on both sides of the blade, it likely is a sword over a throwing knife. However, the catalogue card says that this sword was "used to clear land, (and) settlements" (Wheaton Museum), and so this sword could have served multiple purposes. The catalogue also places this sword among the Ngombe, "a Bantu people of the Equatorial Province of the Belgian Congo," who neighbor the Azande (Wolfe 1959:606). The donor of this sword, Paul Stough, was a missionary who spent time in the central part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in the region of the Ngombe. Since this sword is iron, it shares a common central African metallurgy heritage. One importance of metallurgy is its economic contributions to the society. The need to trade necessitated a need for currency, and often works of metal, such as this throwing knife, became a common form of currency "rather than objects for shrines or for display" (Mack 2000:156). Often times smiths made the works of metal large enough so that they could be reused and remade into weapons or tools (Mack 2000:157). Childs also notes "the anthropological significance of indigenous African metallurgy extends far beyond the economic importance of metals in warfare, agriculture, and trade" (Childs 1993:319). He argues that "metallurgical technology in Africa is explained by analogy to human physiology and to theories of social structure and social process" (Childs 1993:325). For many Africans, who are pre-industrial, metallurgy is almost a "magical" or "mystical" experience (Newman 1974:224). Often times this process would be an analogy for the process of birth, or the difference between genders (Dewey, Roberts 1998). In addition, many metal objects carried a sign of "distinction." Many "ceremonial axes and throwing knives" were "powerful weapons" and symbols (Newman 1974:227). Consequently, smiths held a high status in society because their "art symbolized a highly developed technology" (Newman 1974:228). Therefore, the metallurgy process in Africa is not purely economical, but reflects an African "conceptual framework that imposes order on the world and lends structure to human existence" (Childs 1993:325)."
Item 106: FE-101-16-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Sword with some small openings in the blade and incised decoration on both sides of blade. Handle is wrapped in metal and ends with a hide-covered pommel, probably from a leopard or spotted hyena.

References Cited: Galerie Ezakwantu

2008 Central and Southern African Tribal Art: Weapons-Congo. Electronic Document. http://www.ezakwantu.com/Gallery%20African%20Weapons%20-%20Central%20African%20Weapons.htm. Accessed November 2008.

Hurst, Norman

1997 Ngola: The Weapon as Authority, Identity, and Ritual Object in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, MA: Hurst Gallery.

Culture: Ngombe
Culture Area: Congo
Date Acquired: 1955
Dimensions: Blade: 44.2 cm long x 11.1 cm at widest; Handle: 23.0 cm x 9.1 cm in diameter at pommel
Donor: Mr. Paul Stough
Genearl Area of the World: Africa
Material: Iron (blade), Animal skin (pommel)
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 411 (Weapons), 281 (Work in skins), 789 (Magic)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO32
Use and Background: This is a Ngombe sword, though such swords were also made among neighboring tribes along the Congo River (Hurst 1997:25). Among the Ngombe, this type of sword was carried only by leaders, as a sign of their power and distinction (Galerie Ezakwantu 2008). Foreigners often referred to these swords as
Item 153: FE-223-2 -- Chimbuya (Galerie Ezakwantu 2008)Add to your cart.
Ceremonial axe. Handle is darkened on both ends and is decorated with circular depressions. Blade has a concave edge with protruding ends.

References Cited: Biebuych, Daniel P.

1997 Art: Central Africa. In Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara, edited by John Middleton, pp. 136-137. New York: Charles Scribner

Culture: Chokwe
Culture Area: Central Africa (Northeastern Angola, Southwestern Democratic Republic of Congo)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Handle: length: 42 cm, diameter: 1.9-3.0 cm, width at head: 8 cm; Blade: width: 16.2 cm, height: 6.2 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Wood, iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 301 (Adornment), 412 (General Tools)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FP4 (Chokwe)
Use and Background: This axe has a function similar to a scepter, and is not used for combat or for daily tasks. This axe is described as a ceremonial axe (WCMCF n.d.). The chief will wear the axe by letting it rest on his shoulder and will take it with him if he leaves to visit another village (Alex Livingstone-Smith, November 17, 2008). These axes, which are given to village chiefs and diviners,
Item 307: [unknown07] -- tsa-tsaAdd to your cart.
A miniature Buddhist shrine composed of either a plaster or mortar cast. The shrine depicts a three headed deity sitting cross-legged with her eight arms extended. Six of the hands are holding different objects: an arrow, a bow, a dorje, a rope, a lotus, and a vial. The other two hands are both extended with open palms, one facing upwards, the other facing down. The cast is painted with red, green, hot pink, dark blue and mustard yellow dyes.

References Cited: Brown, Kathryn Selig

2003 Tibetan Buddhist Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Electronic document, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tibu/hd_tibu.html, accessed December 2008.

Natural History (NH)

1921 A Tibetan Shrine. The American Museum of Natural History.

Olschak, Blanche Christine and Thupten Wangyal

1973 Mystic Art of Ancient Tibet. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Rockhill, William Woodville

1984 Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and 1892. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.

Waddell, L. A.

1971 The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism. Cambridge, England: Heffer.

Culture: Tibetan
Culture Area: Tibet
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 10 cm height x 3.5 cm width x 7 cm length
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Asia
Material: Plaster or mortar
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 778 (Sacred Objects and Places), 353 (Interior Decoration and Arrangement)
Outline of World Cultures Code: AJ1 (Tibet)
Use and Background: Buddhism was introduced to Tibet in the seventh century, and by the end of the eighth century, Buddhism was proclaimed the national state religion. Buddhist popularity waned during periods of persecution (namely between A.D. 838 and A.D. 942), but the religion was reinstated by the late tenth century. During the Tibetan Buddhist revival, Tibetan monks began to travel in their pursuit of Buddhist roots, and thereby effectively propagated the Buddhist faith. Tibet
File cabinet drawer 7Add to your cart.
Item 109: FE-102-10 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Large knife or sickle with a curved blade with etched decoration and a wooden cone-shaped handle wrapped in strips of metal.

References Cited: AMNH (American Museum of Natural History)

2008a African Ethnographic Collection: Knife. Electronic Document. http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/databases/common/image_dup.cfm?database=africa&catno=90.1/%202070&site=P. Accessed November 2008

2008b African Ethnographic Collection: Knife. Electronic Document.

http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/databases/common/image_dup.cfm?database=africa&catno=90.1/%202072&site=P. Accessed November 2008

Galerie Ezakwantu

2008 Central and Southern African Tribal Art: Weapons-Congo. Electronic Document. http://www.ezakwantu.com/Gallery%20African%20Weapons%20-%20Central%20African%20Weapons.htm. Accessed November 2008.

WCMCF (Wheaton College Museum Card File)

N.d. Available in the Wheaton College Billy Graham Center Special Collections Room.

Culture: Ngombe
Culture Area: Congo
Date Acquired: 1955
Dimensions: 65 cm long; Blade: 52 cm x 7.5 cm at widest; Handle: 13 cm x 10 cm diameter of base
Donor: Mr. Paul Stough
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Handle: wood; Blade: Iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 412 (General tools)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO32
Use and Background: This type knife is similar to a machete, and is used among the Ngombe as a grass knife to clear land for agriculture and for settlements (WCMCF N.d.). The Ngombe also used knives with curved blades for beheading humans for sacrifices in cult ceremonies (Galerie Ezakwantu 2008). Similar knives are used by men in in neighboring tribes for cutting branches, hunting, and warfare (AMNH 2008a, 2008b).
Item 285: GH-223-10 -- Likely a Honh bellAdd to your cart.
Bronze or Brass Bell with a long handle that is cast in one piece. The bell is ornately decorated with a depiction of the goddess, Indra on the handle of the bell(WCMCF n.d.)

References Cited: Field Museum of Natural History, N.D. Tibet Exhibit. (Sept. 18, 2006) Sensanbaugh, Jean. N.D. Research on the Religious Objects in the Collection of the Wheaton College Anthropology Department. Paper prepared for the Wheaton College Anthropology Department, Wheaton College

Vahi, Peeter. 1992 Buddhist Music of Mongolia. Leonardo Music Journal 2(1): 49-53 Vandor, Ivan. 1974 Cymbals and Trumpets from the Roof of the World." Music Educators Journal 61(1): 106-109, 145-46. Wheaton College Museum Card File N.D. File available in department of Soc-Anthro"

Additional Information: File links available at JSTOR: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0961-1215%281992%292%3A1%3C49%3ABMOM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0027-4321%28197409%2961%3A1%3C106%3ACATFT%22%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
Culture: Tibetan Buddhism, with links to Northern India and Tantrism (Vandor 1974:107).
Culture Area: Tibet; particularly related to the Buddhist Lamas and Tibetan Buddhist monasteries
Date Acquired: 1957 March
Dimensions: 9cm (width) x 19cm (height)
Donor: Ruth Stam
General Area of the World: Asia- China Sphere
Material: Brass or bronze
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534: Musical instruments, 778: Sacred objects and places
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: When Buddhism first reached Tibet in the 7th and 8th centuries, it brought with it a rich musical tradition rooted in Northern India. With close ties to early Buddhist and Hindu Tantrism, this musical tradition sought to infuse music with worship. This Tibetan bell provides a good example of that link. The bell was used for god worship by Buddhist Lamas and may also have been used to frighten away enemies of Buddhism" (WCMCF). Since music is closely linked with Buddhist religion, lamasteries or m onasteries also served as schools of music where monks received advanced training in vocal and instrumental technique (Vandor 1974:108). The religious significance of the bell is especially apparent in its design; one need only look at the handle, which depicts the goddess Indra surrounded by thunderbolts (FMNH nd). According to the Tibet display at the Chicago Museum of Field History, "the thunderbolt, or darje, is a sign of compassion, the trait devout Tibetans value above all others (FMNH nd.) The base of the bell contains an ornate, repetitive pattern that is suiting to god/goddess worship and denotes a sense of status/nobility. The inside of the bell has a clangor. The religious purpose of the bell is also seen in its shape, which has links to Tantrism. The shape of the hand bell is similar to the shape of the "mandala" which is the "geometrical figure representing the nature of the world (Indian)" (Vandor 1974:145). It is likely that this bell is a honh (or a smaller replica of the honh), a bell of Indian origin which played a very important role in Lamaist musical rituals (Vahi 1992:51). According to Peeter Vahi, "a honh is a bronze, brass, or silver bell that is cast as one piece with its handle... [w]hen played, the bell is always held in the left hand. When the bell is shaken, the clapper inside creates a high piercing sound that symbolizes ultimate transcendental wisdom" (Vahi 1992:51). Vahi's description of the honh bell is similar to the description found in a Wheaton College essay by Jean Sensanbaugh, who states: "the bell is held in the left hand with the opening pointed toward the body, the thumb being pressed against the handle and the fingers being laid around the body of the bell; at the same time the lama holds the thunderbolt in his right" (Sensanbaugh nd:4-5). Tibetan Buddhist music is both "extremely subtle and complex," and is part of an ancient Buddhist tradition that celebrates music "with and essentially spiritual purpose" (Vandor 1974:108). This type of music also requires a high level of skill and was performed both inside and outside the monastery. As Vandor writes, "inside it accompanies religious ceremonies, particularly in prayer halls, and sometimes, for certain rites in the courtyard. It is played as a signal for lamas to being their meditation in their cells or to make offerings to certain divinities...[o]utside of the monastery it is performed in private homes for births, marriages, deaths, and for other special occasions, or because someone wished to receive 'merit' as to obtain better reincarnation" (Vandor 1974:109). This particular type of honh bell appears to be very common, as the Chicago Field Museum of History has a large display of very similar bells in their Tibet display. Although the largest of these bells was up to 25cm tall, smaller ones appear more popular as they were easier to use and create. The pattern on this bell was most likely a traditional design for all honh bells of this time period as they all incorporated the goddess Indra surrounded by lightning bolts. "
Item 286: GH-223-10-entry2 -- Drilbu (bell) and dorje (scepter)Add to your cart.
Ceremonial Tibetan brass bell with a long handle that is cast in one continuous piece. The bell is intricately decorated and bears the image of a human or deity figure in the handle. The interior of the bell bears indecipherable linguistic characters. The bell is accompanied by a double ended metal scepter. The scepter has a simple geometric central axis with an arched cluster of prongs at each end. Both ends are cylindrically formed with 9 separate spokes, only one of which is damaged.

References Cited: Heller, Amy

1999 Tibetan Art: Tracing the Development of Spiritual Ideas and Art in Tibet, 600-2000 A.D. Milano, Italy: Jaca Books.

Huntington, John C. with Dina Bangdel and Robert A. F. Thurman

2003 The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Los Angeles, CA: Serindia Publications.

Powerhouse Museum (PM)

2008 Tibetan Ceremonial Bell. Electronic document, http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=185518, accessed December 6th 2008.

Tsybikov, G. T.

1918 Buddhist Pilgrim at the Sacred Places of Tibet. Roger Shaw, trans. Petrograd, Russia: Russian Geographical Society.

Vessantara

2001 The Vajra and Bell: Buddhist Symbols Series. Sheffield, England: Windhorse Publications.

Use and Background: Buddhism was introduced to Tibet in the seventh century, and by the end of the eighth century, Buddhism was proclaimed the national state religion. Buddhist popularity waned during periods of persecution (namely between A.D. 838 and A.D. 942), but the religion was reinstated by the late tenth century. During the Tibetan Buddhist revival, Tibetan monks began to travel in their pursuit of Buddhist roots, and thereby effectively propagated the Buddhist faith. Tibetan Buddhism is rich in symbols, many of which have multi-layered meanings to reflect the different layers of the Dharma (referring to the underlying order in nature and the human condition) (Heller 1999).

Two of the primary Tibetan Buddhist symbols are the bell (known as drilbu in Tibetan, and ghanta in Sanskrit), together with the thunderbolt (known as dorje in Tibetan, and vajra in Sanskrit). These two ritual objects act as profound symbols, embody the attributes of deities, and are constant reminders of the metaphysical verities and the Enlightenment principles of the Buddhist tradition (Huntington 2003:21). The dorje is held in the right, or masculine, hand while the drilbu is held in the left, or female, hand. During Buddhist rituals, lamas wield both items together as signs that they embody the deity in the ceremonial setting. There are several different symbolic rituals which incorporate the bell and the scepter: The lama can raise the dorje while stilling the drilbu against his hip, thereby emphasizing the attainment of the adamantine state. Or the lama can cross the bell and the scepter in front of his chest, symbolizing the coincident perfection of compassion and wisdom (Huntington 2003:220). When not being used for ceremonial purposes, the sacred objects are usually kept on altars, or in the monks

Culture: Tibetan
Culture Area: Tibet
Date Acquired: 1957 March
Dimensions: Bell: 19 cm height x 9 cm diameter; Scepter: 11.5 cm length x 3.5 cm diameter.
Donor: Ruth Stam
General Area of the World: Asia
Material: Brass
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534 (Musical Instrument), 778 (Sacred Objects and Places)
Outline of World Cultures Code: AJ1 (Tibet)
Item 278: GE-223-11 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Chinese brass bell with three horizontal rows of worn casts depicting consecutively from top to bottom flowers, intermingled hatch marks and floral designs, and scrolling dragons. The bell is topped with a simplistic curved handle. The interior clapper is missing, and there is an inscription on the interior with six Mandarin figures which are translated to mean,

References Cited: Clunas, Craig

2004 Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Department of Asian Art (DOAA)

2002 Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Electronic document, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ming/hd_ming.html, accessed December 6th 2008.

Elliott, Jeannette Shambaugh and David L. Shambaugh

2005 The Odyssey of China's Imperial Art Treasures. Washington: University of Washington Press.

Gordon, Irving L.

2000 World History. 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications.

Culture: Chinese
Culture Area: Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 9 cm diameter x 11.5 cm height
Donor: Mrs. Dorothy Bennett
General Area of the World: Eastern China, Asia
Material: Brass
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534 (Musical Instrument)
Outline of World Cultures Code: AF15 (East China)
Use and Background: The reign marks inscribed on the interior of the bell indicate that this bell was crafted during the Ming dynasty, more specifically during the reign of Xuande which occurred between 1426 and 1435. Reign marks became popular during the Xuande era and were used continuously after that time, but are not seen prior to Xuande
Item 281: GE-223-11-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Brass bell with 3 lines of pattern and a handle shaped like an ox bow.
Culture: Possibly Chinese Buddhist Culture, the bell looked similar to examples found in the Tibet/China artifacts the Chicago Museum of Field History.
Culture Area: Hargechowe, China
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 9cm (width) X 11cm (height)
Donor: Mrs. Dorothy B. Bennett
General Area of the World: Asia- China Sphere
Material: Brass
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534: Musical instruments, 778: Sacred objects and places
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
References Cited: Field Museum of Natural History. N.D. Tibet Exhibit. (Sept. 18, 2006). Vandor, Ivan. 1974. Cymbals and Trumpets from the Roof of the World." Music Educators Journal 61(1): 106-109, 145-46. Wheaton College Museum Card File. N.D. File available in department of Soc-Anthro"
Use and Background: The bell has three levels of design. The first level has a repeated pattern of clovers or flowers, the second level has a repeated symbol and the third level has a continuous pattern of lines. The specific use of this object is unknown. However it most likely has religious/Buddhist purposes judging from its similarity to bells found at the Chicago Museum of Field History. Also, this bell was donated by Mrs. Dorothy B. Bennett who donated other religious bells to Wheaton College. Bells of this sort were used for god worship in Buddhist Lamaism. Tibetan Buddhist music is both extremely subtle and complex," and is part of an ancient Buddhist tradition that celebrates music "with and essentially spiritual purpose" (Vandor 1074:108). This type of music also requires a high level of skill and was performed both inside and outside the monastery. As Vandor writes, "[i]nside it accompanies religious ceremonies, particularly in prayer halls, and sometimes, for certain rites in the courtyard. It is played as a signal for lamas to being their meditation in their cells or to make offerings to certain divinities...[o]utside of the monastery it is performed in private homes for births, marriages, deaths, and for other special occasions, or because someone wished to receive 'merit' as to obtain better reincarnation" (Vandor 1974:109). "
Item 323: [unknown23] -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Light brown lined wooden mask; oval/oblong shape; 3 holes (for 2 eyes and mouth); 2 longer pieces extending on either side toward chin (possibly to represent ears or earrings) with an

References Cited: 1998. Maasai (Masai) People Traditions and Culture. Electronic document, www.africancraftsmarket.com/Maasai_people.htm, accessed September 24, 2009.

1998. African Masks. Electronic document, http://www.africancraftsmarket.com/African_mask_category.htm, accessed October 2, 2009.

Culture: Maasai
Culture Area: Africa
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: ~34 x ~15 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: East Africa (Southwest Kenya)
Material: Wood
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 532 (masks before 1977)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FL12 (Maasai)
Use and Background: Traditionally, the Maasai believe in the prevalence of spirits in the world and often carve masks of these spirits. It is believed that the carver/wearer of the mask will have control over the spirit whose image it bears and will be able to combat evil spirits while wearing the mask. Masks are often worn at ceremonies, particularly those pertaining to important life events like marriages, births and deaths (African Masks 1998). Today, these traditions merge with business as the Maasai make and sell masks and other crafts to tourists. Accompanying ceremonies may be maintained within the society, but many are staged. This particular mask was most likely created for business/tourism purposes, as is made evident by the
File cabinet drawer 8Add to your cart.
Item 322: [unknown22] -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Mask crafted from dark brown wood, smooth on front with rough hole in back for hanging-probably decorative; rounded top and sides, flat bottom, detailed ridges protruding from two sides and lining sides of face; depicts woman with braided hair wearing headdress; carved eyes, nose lips and chin with two small slits below eyes for human use; heavy

References Cited: 1998. African Masks. Electronic document, http://www.africancraftsmarket.com/African_mask_category.htm, accessed October 2, 2009.

Spencer, Paul. 1996. Culture Summary: Maasai. New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations Area Files.

Culture: Maasai
Culture Area: Africa
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: ~21 x ~10 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: East Africa (Southwest Kenya)
Material: Wood
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 532 (Masks before 1977)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FL12 (Maasai)
Use and Background: Traditionally, the Maasai believe in the prevalence of spirits in the world and often carve masks of these spirits. It is believed that the carver/wearer of the mask will have control over the spirit whose image it bears and will be able to combat evil spirits while wearing the mask. Masks are often worn at ceremonies, particularly those pertaining to important life events like marriages, births and deaths (African Masks 1998). Ceremonies also include those which promote warriors and dancing rituals as a means of gaining fertility (Spencer 1996).
Item 242: FG-222-6 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
A leather cord with five different-sized leather embossed pouches attached to it. Has a fastener on the cord.

References Cited: Kusimba, Chapurukha. September 14, 2009. Social Curator of African Anthropology. Field Museum of Natural History.

Messing, Simon D. 1985. Highland Plateau Amhara of Ethiopia. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files, Inc.

Culture: Unavailable
Culture Area: Africa
Date Acquired: Unknown
Dimensions: Length of cord: 28 cm Pouch #1: 4.7 cm x 3.2 cm Pouch #2: 3.5 cm x 9 cm Pouch #3: 6.3 cm x 2.5 cm Pouch #4: 6.5 cm x 4.5 cm Pouch #5: 2.5 cm x 10 cm
Donor: Unavailable
General Area of the World: Widespread use (from Nigeria to Ethiopia)
Material: Leather
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 789 (Magic)
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: Commonly known as an
File cabinet drawer 9Add to your cart.
Item 253: GD-107-35- -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Missing handle, as indicated by the hole in the side where the handle was. There is a string hanging off of each side with a bead attached to the end. The drum has two heads, and one is broken. It has a natural wooden color.

References Cited: Morgan, Harry T. 1942. Chinese Symbols and Superstitions. South Pasadena, California: P.D. and Ione Perkins.

Philipp, Christopher. Personal Communication. Sept. 14, 2009.

Culture: China
Culture Area: Asia
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Diameter 5 cm, 2.3 cm tall. Strings 4.5 cm
Donor: Unknown
General Area of the World: China
Material: Wood, Animal Skin
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 534
Outline of World Cultures Code: AF1
Use and Background: Had a handle, which was twirled in the hand. The beads on the end fly around and then hit the drumhead. In Chinese music, the sound of drums indicated command or leadership, adding a symbolic edge to a drum sound, as well (Morgan 1942). According to a personal communication with Christopher Philipp from the Field Museum on September 14, 2009, this drum is used in traditional Chinese music.
Item 140: FE-135-2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
A light caramel-colored comb whose teeth fan out from a woven handle. It has 14 wooden teeth, tied together in a decorative pattern.

References Cited: Kusimba, Chapurukha. September 14, 2009. Social Curator of African Anthropology. Field Museum of Natural History.

Reynolds, Harold. 1904. Notes on the Azande Tribe of the Congo. African Society Journal (3): 238-246.

US Central Intelligence Agency. 1996.

Culture: Likely Azande
Culture Area: Africa
Date Acquired: Unknown
Dimensions: Base of comb: 2.3 cm. Length: 14 cm. Width of comb (at widest point): 8.3 cm.
Donor: Unavailable
General Area of the World: Widespread use throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa Republic, Sudan (Bas-Uele District)
Material: Wood and palm fiber
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 302 (Personal Grooming)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FOO7
Use and Background: This comb was used for grooming hair. The Azande women were known for having elaborate hairstyles and paying considerable attention to their hair. With only their fingers and a couple of sticks, they were able to create beautiful hairstyles such as the
File cabinet drawer 10Add to your cart.
Item 138: FE-13-32 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Coiled leg band made of iron, which has begun to rust.
Culture: Mangbetu
Culture Area: Africa
Date Acquired: before 1957
Dimensions: 22 cm long, 11 cm diameter at large end, 9 cm diameter at small end
Donor: unknown
General Area of the World: Democratic Republic of Congo, or Central African Republic (Kusimba)
Material: iron
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 301 (ornament)
Outline of World Cultures Code: FO 29
References Cited: Kusimba, Chapurkha. 2009. Curator of Anthropology, African Archaeology and Ethnology, Field Museum, Chicago. Personal communication. September 14, 2009.
Use and Background: According to Kusimba, Mangbetu women probably wear this leg band around the calf because it is too heavy to be worn on the forearm.
Item 10: AB-13-10 -- aatt'yasxwAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Eight eagle quills bound together by thread strung through holes drilled through the sides of the quills.

Refetences Cited: Halpmin, Marjorie M., Margaret Seguin

1990 Tsimshian Peoples: Southern Tsimshian, Coastal Tsimshian, Nisga and Gitksan. In Handbook of the North American Indians. Wayne Suttles, ed. Pp. 279. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute.

Pritzker, Barry M., ed.

2000 A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Pp. 212, 484 New York, New York: Oxford Press.

Culture: Gitksan
Culture Area: Coastal British Columbia
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 32.7 cm long, 8 cm wide tapers to 2.7 cm wide
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Canada
Material: Eagle Quills
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: EQH (Ornament)
Outline of World Cultures Code: NE15 (Tsmishian)
Use and Background: Laurel Smith Wilson, the Executive Director and Curator of the 'Ksan Historical Village and Museum identified this artifact as an object worn by the shamans of the Gitksan tribe (also know as Gitxsan, meaning "people of the Skeena" or "people of the river of mist") (Personal e-mail December 8, 2008). Located on the Skeena River, the Gitksan are part of the Tsimshian people group (Pritzker 2000: 213). Both men and women could be shaman (also known as medicine men) and they had many roles, including the role of healer. This power object was worn during the healing rituals (Personal email December 8, 2008). A power object is a thing through which power ("naxnoq") to heal works. Shaman do not claim this power is their own, but from their spirit helpers in another reality (Guedon 1993: 139-140). Power objects took the form of headdresses, crests and ceremonial robes or costumes (Halpin 1990: 279).
Item 11: AB-13-11 -- aatt'yasxwAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Eight eagle quills bound together by yarn strung through holes in the sides of the quills.
Culture: Gitksan
Culture Area: Skeena River
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 37.5 cm long x 7.5 cm wide tapering to 3 cm wide
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Canada
Material: Eagle Quills
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: EQH (Ornament)
Outline of World Cultures Code: NE15 (Tsmishian)
References Cited: Gu
Use and Background: Laurel Smith Wilson, Executive Director and Curator of the 'Ksan Historical Village and Museum identified this artifact as a power object used by the shamans of the Gitksan tribe (also known as Gitxsan, translated "the people of the Skeena" or "the people of the river of mist") (Personal e-mail December 8, 2008). The Gitksan are part of the Tsimshian people group (Pritzker 2000: 213). Gitksan shamans (or medicine men) could be both men and women, and they had many important roles, including healer. This object was used as a power object in healing rituals (Personal e-mail December 8, 2008). These objects were things through which healing power ("naxnoq") could work. Shamans did not claim this healing power as their own, but from their spiritual helpers from another reality. They met these helpers during visions(Guedon 1993: 130-140, 143). Power objects included headdresses, ceremonial robes, and other paraphenalia (Margaret Seguin 1990: 279).
Item 12: AB-13-12 -- aatt'yasxwAdd to your cart.View associated digital content.
Eight eagle quills bound together with yarn strung through holes in the sides of the quills. Red and green poms of yarn for decoration.
Cultural Area: Northwest Coast
Culture: Gitksan
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 28.2 cm long x 8 cm wide tapers to 3 cm wide
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Canada
Material: Eagle Quills
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: EQH (Ornament)
Outline of World Cultures Code: NE15 (Tsmishian)
References Cited: Gu
Use and Background: Laurel Smith Wilson, Executive Director and Curator of the 'Ksan Historical Village and Museum identified this artifact as a power object used by the shamans of the Gitksan tribe (also known as Gitxsan, translated "the people of the Skeena" or "the people of the river of mist") (Personal e-mail December 8, 2008). The Gitksan are part of the Tsimshian people group (Pritzker 2000: 213). Gitksan shamans (or medicine men) could be both men and women, and they had many important roles, including healer. This object was used as a power object in healing rituals (Personal e-mail December 8, 2008). These objects were things through which healing power ("naxnoq") could work. Shamans did not claim this healing power as their own, but from their spiritual helpers from another reality. They met these helpers during visions(Guedon 1993: 130-140, 143). Power objects included headdresses, ceremonial robes, and other paraphenalia (Margaret Seguin 1990: 279).
Item 228: FG-165 -- Potamochoerus porcus quills (Donkin 1985:47)Add to your cart.
Porcupine quills: colors of brown, white, black, and cream

References Cited: American Museum of Natural History African Ethnographic Collection

Eglash, Ron. 1998. Geometry in Mangbetu Design. In Mathematics Teacher v91n5 pp. 376? 381. Copyright: Copyright National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Inc.

Donkin, R.A. 1985. The Peccary With Observations on the Introduction of Pigs to the New World. v75, part 5. The American Philosophical Society.

Schildkrout, Enid, and Curtis A. Keim. 1990. African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Wahl, Bernt. 1995. Exploring Fractals on the Macintosh. New York: Addison Wesley Publishing Co.

Additional Information: American Museum of Natural History: http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/databases/africa_public/africa_public.htm
Culture: Area is the Medje area (in Northeast Zaire), Culture/People group: Mangbetu
Culture Area: Belgian Congo (formerly Zaire) according to quills identical to artifacts. (However, possibly Equatorial Guinea according to the catalogue number previously placed upon object.)
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: Longest: 27.2 cm, Shortest: 15.9 cm
Donor: [Unknown]
General Area of the World: Porcupine quills found in: 1. Africa (given catalogue number) 2. Africa (email from Jeff Anderson, October 4, 2006), West Middle Africa specifically
Material: Porcupine Quills (and Cord when used for the waist string)
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: Ornament: 301, Mangbetu: F029
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: Although each of these quills is a little different, most of them look very similar to porcupine quills found in the Belgian Congo (formerly Zaire). The location is Medje, and the culture is Mangbetu. A few of the other quills look similar to ones found in Nigeria from the area named Idofa. The culture in that area is named the Yoruba. Others quills are similar to quills found among the from the Kete culture in the Belgian Congo (AMNH 2006).Spines from porcupine used by women and men for the latter as hat pin, for the former as hairpin (AMNH African Ethnographic Collection).Used to make necklaces, too, as well as on decorations various sculptures in West African cultures (Jeff Anderson). Also usedY"strings of sections pf porcupine bristles worn by women about the waist or crosswise by men over the breast and shoulders" (AMNH African Ethnographic Collection) "Art from Northeastern Zaire contain a detailed account of Mangbetu history and traditions" (Eglash 1998). One of the most famous aspects of Mangbetu art is the 'naturalistic look' (Schildkrout and Keim 1990). Mangbetu used quills as a form of body ornament (or art), therefore following the 'naturalistic look'. Headgear plays a large role in African societies, and the porcupine quills are sometimes apart of a headdress (Karp 1991).
Item 229: FG-165-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]Add to your cart.
Porcupine quills varying in lengths. They are light yellow with light and dark brown spots. Most are still pointed on the ends but some have been broken, so they are blunt.

References Cited: Dorsey, George

1899. The Ocimbanda, or witch-doctor of the Ovimbundu of Portuguese southwest Africa. pp. 183-188. Boston ; New York.

Culture Area: Western Sudan
Date Acquired: [Unknown]
Dimensions: 24 quills varying in lengths from as much as 27 cm to 19 cm.
Donor: Tanis
General Area of the World: Africa
Material: Quills
Outline of Cultural Materials Code: 300
Outline of World Cultures Code: [undetermined]
Use and Background: The more I researched porcupine quills, the more I found of their uses. There are certain head dresses that chiefs will wear (Dorsey, 1899). They are used for decoration within the home. They are used for adornment in jelwery and they are sold for tourists. There are so many different cultures that used these as well that it is hard to narrow down this artifact ton only one culture and country.

Browse by Item:

[Item 1: 122M88 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 2: 122M95 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 9: AB-104-11 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 16: AB-18-42 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 29: All-036 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 30: All-087 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 31: All-117 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 32: All-292 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 33: All-296 -- Tumbuna (ancestor figure), Nambunda (carving) (Leigh N. d., Silverman 1996:30 49)],
[Item 43: B-19-2-6309 -- possible olla],
[Item 47: CD-113-13 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 49: CD-113-60- -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a pucuna (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 50: CD-113-60-entry2 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a "pucuna" (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 56: CD-13 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 60: CD-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 61: CD-13-15-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 64: CD-13-2-6156 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 65: CD-135-26 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 74: CD-171-2-6208 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 77: CD-173-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 85: CF-104-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 88: F-13-7 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 90: FA-104-12 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 93: FB-111 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 96: FB-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 99: FE-101 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 112: FE-103-6 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 129: FE-131-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 131: FE-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 136: FE-13-19 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 137: FE-13-3 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 146: FE-172-2 -- Adungu],
[Item 147: FE-172-2-entry2 -- Adungu],
[Item 158: FF-104-2-B -- Mitei, mite],
[Item 162: FF-135-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 163: FF-14 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 186: FF-189-6 -- sambe],
[Item 187: FF-189-6-entry2 -- sambe],
[Item 190: FF-222-8 -- Shango],
[Item 200: FG-102-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 202: FG-104-20 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 208: FG-122-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 209: FG-13-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 215: FG-13-15 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 216: FG-13-2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 217: FG-13-2-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 220: FG-13-5 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 222: FG-13-6-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 227: FG-152-1 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 235: FG-18-8 -- Faifai],
[Item 326: [unknown26] -- Nomoli],
[Item 252: GD-103-10 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 275: GE-222 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 289: GH-223-XXX -- Likely a Honh bell],
[Item 290: GH-223-XXX-entry2 -- Dril bu],
[Item 291: N-127 -- None specifically],
[Item 295: N-232 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 296: N-232-entry2 -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 297: N-250 -- Punca (in Yagua)],
[Item 298: N-250-1 -- The Yaguas call the blowgun a Apucuna@ (Waymire n.d..).],
[Item 301: [unknown01] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 302: [unknown02] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 304: [unknown04] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 305: [unknown05] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan masks],
[Item 309: [unknown09] -- wa],
[Item 310: [unknown10] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 312: [unknown12] -- wik?ro or s?],
[Item 316: [unknown16] -- Deangle or Bonagle Dan mask],
[Item 317: [unknown17] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 318: [unknown18] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 325: [unknown25] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 321: [unknown21] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[Item 324: [unknown24] -- [artifact name unknown]],
[File cabinet 1],
[File cabinet 2],
[File cabinet 3],
[Box 1],
[Box 2],
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